A number of impact assessment studies were commissioned to measure the impact of the PHI Programme. Initial assessment study results indicated that the PHI programme had a positive impact, but found that it was difficult to measure and quantify that impact. It also found that the initial assessments may have been conducted too soon after the R&D projects were concluded. An in-depth impact assessment was therefore conducted during 2016 to determine the impact of the PHI Programme; how it affects outcomes and whether these effects are intended or unintended.